The Three Roles of Victimhood
Lynne Namka, Ed. D. ©
three roles of the Drama Triangle are the three main positions
that unhappy families play as described by transactional
therapist, Stephen Karpman in 1968. The three roles are
Perpetrator, rescuer and Victim that operate to keep people
in the illusion of power. The roles incorporate learned
patterns of habit and control mechanisms that bond people
together in sick ways. They are symbiotic, destructive behaviors
that affect all members of the family.
drew these roles on an inverted triangle with the Persecutor
(whose behavior ranges from the dominant one to the abuser
in the family) and the Rescuer at the upper end of the triangle
and the Victim at the bottom. The two positions at the top
are considered the "one-up" positions where the people feel
superior while the Victim is at the "one-down" position
feeing looked down on and helplessness. The positions often
shift as people change emotions to protect the ego which
feels threatened. The Victim may become angry at the injustice
of being persecuted, thereby shifting into the Perpetrator
role. The Abuser may become tired with his angry barrage
then feel guilty and shift into the rescuing role.
roles are unconscious scripts of how unhealthy family life
is played out that keep people disconnected from true intimacy.
They manifest in behaviors that people engage in to distance
and disconnect from each other. They are the ways people
attempt to stay safe, feel important and stroke their own
egos. Participating in the drama of the triangle keeps people
stuck in lies, blame and shame, unhealthy secrets, "shoulds"
and addictions to crisis, chaos and manipulation.
Drama Triangle positions are largely unconscious in nature
and kept in place by denial, arrogance, helplessness and
collusion (tacit agreement from all players to keep the
status quo.) Unconscious scripts of guilt, shame are programmed
into the young child's psyche. Themes of desperation form
around the roles--themes of depression, alcoholism, abuse,
incest, scapegoating, manipulation and codependency. These
thematic patterns are passed down from one generation to
the next. According to one authority, approximately one
fourth of all families have some version of having a tyrant
member who tells the others what to do.
roles are perpetuated by the denial of feelings first in
the self and then in others. Denial is the defense mechanism
that keeps people acting out in unconscious, perverted ways
instead of seeing the reality of how they hurt themselves
and others. The huge stash of denied feelings continues
to build over a life time to perpetuate the misery in the
person's life by alienating him/her from loving connections
with a partner or with children.
children in the family learn all three roles and as adults
perpetuate them on to their children. According to their
personality type, they choose a primary role but have the
other two roles at their disposal to bring up in specific
situations. Each family member "moves around the triangle"
shifting roles as needed. Each person has a primary role,
but can shift to another role to maintain the illusion of
power. With others outside the family, different roles are
played depending on how much the relationship is valued
and what healthy boundaries have been set in place. For
example, a man might be dominant and abusive at home, but
be subservient to his boss at work.
Lynn Forrest described how there is typically a primary
position which the person identifies the most with. "Our
primary positions are generally set-up in childhood. For
instance, if a parent is overly protective, doing everything
for a child, then that child may grow up to feel incapable
of taking care of themselves. This sets them up for a life-time
role of Victim. Or, the opposite; they might come to feel
angry and vindictive if others don't take care of them,
thereby adopting a primary Persecutor stance."
healthy families, there can be a minor version of these
roles which erupt more so when huge stressors hit. Instead
of the abusive Perpetrator dynamic, there is a dominant
partner with the other partner going along with decisions
but little drama as shown in traditional marriages. In healthy
families there is honesty and permission to talk about acting
out behaviors of others with problem solving instead of
abuse, giving in and enabling. You can learn how healthy
families interact and break into the negative roles. (See
John Gottman's research on how healthy families communicate
with each other.)
Addictions Create Havoc in Families
addictions always cause major destructive role playing.
One form of the Perpetrator is the "nice guy" who turns
mean while drinking. Another form is the angry person who
rages when using drugs or alcohol. The alcoholic who withdraws
regularly into stupor is a form of neglect. Addictions in
some family members correspondingly bring up rescuing and
victimhood in others big time. The deeper that one or more
family members move into destructive addictions, the bigger
the family drama will become.
article from Al Anon illustrates how family members can
shift Drama Triangle positions in their despair and frustration.
"It is appalling how well the alcoholic controls the family,
especially the wife, husband or mother. The alcoholic drinks
again and again. The family screams, cries, yells, begs,
pleads, prays, threatens or practices the silent treatment.
It also covers up, protects and shields the alcoholic from
the consequences of drinking. It the alcoholic continues
to act like a little god, it is because the family is inadequate
in opposing this attitude and abets the preservation of
the illusion of omnipotence."
and enabling interrupt the natural aversive consequences
of the roles. Sometimes people need to experience the painful
consequences of their choices. Sometimes they need to suffer
and hit bottom before they understand that they need to
change. For example, a restraining order and being court
ordered to anger management classes after domestic violence
gives the shake up and reality check that the perpetrator
needs. He needs to suffer the pain of aversive consequences
rather than have the family members continue to suffer his
Playing the Roles always Create Lose--Lose--Lose. No One
Wins in the Drama Triangle.
from denied pain.
lies and unhealthy secrets.
from a sense of shame and cause shame.
from feelings of unworthiness.
about a loss of personal power.
guilt and a "sick sense of love."
people caught in dysfunctional behavior.
passed down to the next generation of children.
Roles that Keep You Stuck in Unhappy Relationships
Remember that you can have some traits of each of the
roles and switch back and forth between them!
Perpetrator--"I Get To Feel Safe by Hurting Others and
Putting Them Down"
Stuck in a false sense of superiority and defense mechanisms
keep people in denial.
role--feeling the adrenalin rush during anger and rage.
Getting high from fighting and witnessing fights. (If
you get energized watching the Jerry Springer show, you
might check out adrenalin addiction.)
uses anger as an energizer to keep depression at bay.
to be in control and uses verbal or physical force to
stay in power.
with threat, new ideas and conflict with anger to stay
safe in the role of being the dominant person.
blame, criticisms, attacks and then venting to release
highly judgmental of others and angry when others do not
do what they say.
righteous judgments about others weaknesses subtly allows
the weakness to continue.
sense of entitlement--"you owe me" and willing to use
verbal or physical force to get it.
of frustration trigger the right to get angry rather than
deal with own uncomfortable feelings.
to feel vulnerable and denies own weaknesses.
based and uses negative behaviors to cover up/deny own
need to be right and not have their authority challenged.
reasons to make others wrong and scapegoats them.
others deserve the abuse and punishment the Perpetrators
have had a parent who modeled aggressive behavior and
winning through force.
have had a parent who spoiled the child setting up feelings
of entitlement and getting his way.
Rescuer--"I Get to Feel Safe by Enabling Others"
in a false superiority with defense of acting unselfishly
to help others.
role--feeling good at the expense of others rights to
take care of themselves.
guy beliefs, such as takes the "high moral ground" of
rescuing and enabling others.
to be in control of others to avoid own feelings and problems.
self-esteem by being seen as unselfish for someone else's
rescuing and enabling to connect or to feel important.
judgmental of others and angry when others do not do what
Perpetrator for problems in the family while refusing
to address one's own problems.
anxiety driven and uses rescuing to reduce feelings of
self when not involved with other's problems.
shame about loss of self to meet others needs.
caretaker role can create sense of giving own self away
and create depression.
sense of entitlement with the Victim of "You owe me because
of all I've done for you."
become a martyr/Victim when he/she feels that he/she has
been taken advantage of by others.
the child though meeting his/her own needs of shame and
guilt rather than meeting the needs of the child to be
a responsible person who is allowed negative consequences
and learns from them.
feel guilty and try to make it up to a child because of
a divorce or due to choosing a lousy spouse who abuses,
scapegoats or neglects the child.
feel guilty and try to make it up to a child because of
drinking or using drugs when the child was small, neglecting
the child or being a single mom.
feel guilty and try to make it up to a child because of
a handicapping condition or a perceived weakness in the
Victim--"I Get to Feel Safe by being Submissive"
in a false sense of being unworthy with defenses of feeling
sorry for self and passive aggressive behavior.
with threats by giving in, in order to feel safe and is
submissive when others act inappropriately.
to stand up for self and avoids confrontation.
his/her needs do not count.
be overly sensitive, wish-washy and unable to make and
stick to decisions.
take responsibility for own feelings.
off of the beliefs of Perpetrator and rescuer that he/she
cannot take care of self.
shame base for being irresponsible and inept.
anxiety driven and makes excuses for staying stuck in
Perpetrator for problems in the family.
resentment and retaliation through manipulation and refusal
to act as a responsible adult.
between "Poor me" and anger with blaming others "He/she
when goes along with what the Perpetrator or Rescuer says
stuck and unfulfilled in life but does not risk moving
have had a lenient or overly-protective parent who set
up expectations of helplessness.
have had a parent who feels anxiety when the child has
to suffer natural consequences from mistakes.
A Fourth Role--The Neglector--"I Get to Do What I Want
and Ignore the Needs of Others"
Karpman did not describe this dynamic, the Neglectful Parent
can cause anger, trauma and fears of abandonment in children.
Involved in own interests and needs and does not recognize
the needs of the children.
self involved and withdraws from family connections to
meet needs outside the home.
involved in career, hobbies, volunteer work, affair, drinking
children to fend for themselves.
be absent-minded not there or cold and rejecting.
oldest child (usually a girl) to raise the younger children.
expects a child to take care of their needs. This creates
a parentified child who has to give up their childhood
to take care of others. The parentified child grows up
learning codependency at an early age and is often angry
at missing out on getting to be a child.
A Fifth Role--The Wise, Resilient Child--"I'm Not Like
dynamic not described by Karpman is the child in the family
who is often wiser than the parents who knows from an
early age that things are not right in the family. This
child understands that there must be a better way to live
than to keep wounding each other with offensive behavior.
He or she starts to look outside the home for positive
role models--a teacher, neighbor, healthy relative, friend's
parent or coach. If the child has talent, he/she is reinforced
with attention and encouragement for his hard work. He/she
becomes resilient in dealing with the dysfunction of the
family and seeks healthier people to hang out with. He/she
works hard and his/her identity becomes associated with
hard work and talent. High achievement becomes the new
defense to bolster up self esteem, but it makes the person
one sided. Achievement becomes the self esteem rather
than balancing all the skills necessary to form connection
and create a happy family life.
resilient child becomes successful in life due his/her incorporation
of positive work skills. Working hard and even workholism
becomes a defense strategy to feel good and getting the
praise that comes with being seen as an excellent worker.
All may go well for many years until working hard to keep
self esteem high is not enough. The person starts to feel
empty and have the sense that something is missing in their
life as he/she has literally withdrawn from contact in the
family he has created. He/she starts to feel the imbalance
that spending long hours on the job or on hobbies has created.
Having only limited defenses--working hard and perhaps drinking
or drugging, the person turns more to what has worked in
the past--working harder. But achievement no longer is enough
to fill the void inside.
this time, there may be a crisis--perhaps a mid life crisis.
The defense of achievement does not work any more. At this
juncture in life, there is a choice. The resilient child
grown up can either crash into depression or acting out
in addictions OR start to examine the early pain of being
brought up in a Drama Triangle family where unhealthy behaviors
were the daily norm. This can be a shake up time where the
person decides to go into recovery and address the pain
of the past. It may take the form of searching for a spiritual
identity and true meaning in life. Some people believe this
shake-up time is the Soul's calling.
The Call from the Soul
Soul reaches out to get the person to examine the unresolved
pain of the past to provoke personal and spiritual growth.
There are certain developmental milestones across life where
the personal pain is so great that the person is willing
to be open and stop some of the defenses he/she has built
up. The pain of the past has to be addressed. Severe pain
of the present life can be an impetus to get the person
to wake up and learn, stretch and grow spiritually. The
call from the Soul comes forth to spur the person into becoming
the best person they can be.
Creating the Escape Hatch--Rising Above the Drama Triangle
family members find it easier to get into recovery and
change than others. Rescuers and Victims are usually more
sensitive people and are more likely to read books, attend
self help meetings and come to therapy to get help. Perpetrators
are less likely to change as they seem to have a bigger
dose of arrogance, defensiveness, shame and denial to
overcome. Of course, the recovery is dependent upon seeing
and releasing the underlying needs that the Drama Triangle
roles feed into.
other family members see the value of getting healthy in
their interactions with others; others do not. You can interrupt
your Drama Triangle role playing and change the way you
interact with family members. The whole recovery movement--therapy,
self help books, AA and other help yourself groups, Oprah
and Dr. Phil--teaches you how to change YOUR part of the
dynamics of interacting with others. You can only change
yourself. You can learn to be direct and straight with people
without playing games.
is the first key. Understand and observe the roles that
you play and how you shift from aggressor to Victim to rescuer.
Healthy relationships can happen if you are willing to work
and change yourself and learn to act in ways that form intimate
imagery, see yourself in the middle of the triangle. Observe
yourself when you start to go into thoughts, feelings and
behaviors of the Perpetrator, Victim and rescuer roles.
Rise above the roles through being mindful. Mindfulness
is noticing what is happening rather than reacting to it.
Watch how you are about to get hooked back in--observe your
emotions and body reactions that indicate that you are being
triggered. From up above, look down on the behaviors of
the people involved--not to judge but to understand.
accountable and own all thoughts, feelings and behaviors
that keep you in the drama roles. Take care of yourself
and your feelings and problems done. Expect and insist that
others take care of their feelings and problems. Make getting
clean your number one priority with your behavior.
addictions and co-dependent behaviors through self help
groups such as AA, AlAnon and Codependents of American Anonymous.
There is tremendous, loving help out there if you but reach
out and ask for it!
the blame and shame game. Interrupt all blame either for
self or others. Watch for attitudes and behaviors of "Who
did it? Who can be blamed?" Looking for someone to be called
on the carpet when something goes wrong is a constant in
dysfunctional families. You can go one of two ways when
there is an issue: You can look for someone to blame OR
you can start problem solving.
habit of blaming comes from being judgmental. Address your
constant need to judge others when they do not meet your
standards and values. Mind your own business! And don't
give too much credence to negative people's opinion of you.
Remind yourself, "What ____ thinks of me is none of my business.
My business is to change so that I think well of myself."
any irrational beliefs that you should be perfect. Error
correction is analyzing your mistakes and deciding to act
differently next time. The moment you realize that you have
goof up, you have a choice: You can beat yourself up or
you can figure out what you did wrong through problem solving.
Stop self condemnation and learn from your mistakes.
yourself around positive people who don't have the need
to play the roles of the Drama Triangle. Insist on equality
in relationships. Insist that people treat each other with
respect. Figure out your values and what you will and will
not put up with in your life. Set boundaries and stick to
them giving consequences to those who continually go past
the limits you have set. Your Bottom Line is that place
where you decide to walk away when someone acts in ways
you can no longer live with. Discontinue relationships with
friends who use or abuse you.
the dark sides of your personality and make friends with
it. The shadow parts are those denied, repressed, acting
out aspects of yourself which were formed during early family
trauma. Keep your ears and eyes open and learn about your
nasty behaviors which you may abhor. Keep your wisdom and
heart open when you revert to the worst of yourself--these
parts, when healed, hold many gifts for you.
release techniques for processing unhappy memories of the
past and current negative emotions. The techniques of hypnosis,
imagery, cognitive behavioral interruption of negativity,
Eye Movement Desensitization (EMDR), Thought Field Therapy
(TFT), The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), The Tapas
Acupressure Technique (TAT) and many others help process
and release issues. Yes, you can do a lot to help yourself,
but therapy is the fast track to moving off the Drama Triangle.
there has been severe dysfunction in families, you can't
get to the depth of your pain on your own without an objective
guide. Find a therapist who does not just let you talk.
If you've been with the same therapist for some time and
seem stuck, consider a new approach. Therapists who know
the processing techniques listed above have better recovery
success than ones who just listen to you.
yourself for learning the roles in the past and understand
that you learned what was modeled for you. Therapists who
use spiritual approaches to therapy are more likely to use
techniques that help you forgive yourself and those who
hurt you. One of the best techniques to promote forgiveness
and moving on with your life is the Emotional Freedom Technique.
This fast, effective technique incorporates forgiveness
statement along with affirmations and acupressure to promote
relaxation which helps neutralize strong emotions and attachment
congruence which is the art of having your outside behavior
match your inside feelings. In congruence, all thoughts,
body states, emotions and actions are similar. When you
are congruent, you state your feelings and act in a direct,
fair manner. Make a new contract with friends and family
members that you are going to avoid game playing and speak
in fair, firm ways and express feelings. Learn the "I formula"
and use it when appropriate--"I feel _____ when you _____.
Understand that others will not change just because you
express your feelings.
professional help early on for children who show signs of
the dysfunction in the family. Anger issues, suicidal gestures,
depression, use of alcohol and drugs and refusal to do school
work, failing and dropping out of school are all signs of
a child's cry for help. Often the child's acting out behavior
is a barometer for the family, signaling that there is unaddressed
family pain. Many families find help in getting off some
of the Drama Triangle by first bringing a child who is hurting
with loving intent--can help bring insight and change to
the family sometimes. When you come from a place of centeredness
and love, you can ask a family member to look at their abusing,
enabling or staying in Victim attitudes and behavior. Be
prepared to get denial, anger or abuse in return.
two rules in unhappy families are don't shake up the system
and don't threaten the status quo. Understand that as you
get healthy and refuse to play the Drama game, your family
members may become angry and see you as bad if you refuse
to play the old, manipulative games or call them on their
dysfunctional behavior. If you stop bailing out irresponsible
family members with your money and attention, you will be
people choose to dissociate themselves from their game-playing
family as they become healthy. If they do not pull away
completely, they limit the amount of time they spend with
dysfunctional members of their family. They shorten family
visits where there is excessive use of alcohol and verbal
abuse. They drop in on holidays before people become drunk
and abusive instead of spending the entire day.
is strength in numbers. Get together with members of the
family who are ready to address the pain. Family dysfunction
has to be recognized and processed. If you are the only
one in recovery, get a support group of like minded people
who are working on their own releases from Drama Triangle
Skills for each Role Player to Leave the Drama Triangle
denying that you reject, punish, or persecute others.
the horrific reality that you have damaged others by your
unrealistic expectations and anger.
up the need to be right and feel self righteous and superior
rationalizing and justifying domineering beliefs and behaviors.
honest with yourself--tell yourself the truth! Own the
effects of your loud voice, angry stare and cold shoulder
on others. Catch and interrupt yourself when you increase
the volume and force to get your way.
others disagree with you, ask yourself, "Am I really being
threatened or is it just a difference of opinion?"
how your use of force makes you feel powerful and find
healthy ways to feel good about yourself.
how you are energized by getting angry. Identify the adrenalin
rush that anger gives you.
new, healthy highs and energizing experiences to replace
the adrenalin high of anger.
anger management classes to learn anger containment and
anger release techniques.
parenting classes to learn about children's age appropriate
behavior and learn appropriate discipline techniques.
anger and take a time-out by walking away before you become
verbally or physically abusive.
to feel vulnerable with uncomfortable feelings instead
of exploding out in anger when stressed or threatened.
and use the Intentional Dialogue Technique (Harville Hendrix's
Imago Therapy) to feel empathy and compassion for others.
to those you have harmed and begin the repair work to
set the family on a healthy course.
a life where you can live in peace, without anger!
Catch yourself in the act of feeling good because you
helped someone. Stop basing your self-esteem on helping
up the need to feel superior because you are the good
guy who always helps others.
your self esteem needs to control others and know what
is best for them.
your own problems, shortcomings and negative emotions
instead of focusing on other people.
limits about solving other people's problems and put ALL
of your energy in to solving your own.
the "hooks"--how others use guilt and manipulation to
pull you into the Drama Triangle.
rationalizing and justifying your caretaking and enabling
feeling sorry for other people and giving them advice,
money or support.
others overwhelm you with their problems, tell them you
are not qualified to deal with such deep issues and suggest
they get professional help.
clean and sober with your codependency. Read at least
five books on codependency and do the mind-opening exercises.
Adult Children of Alcoholics and AlAnon, get a sponsor
and work the steps.
with your anger of being the good little girl or boy and
the parentified child who did not get to have a childhood.
five books on the heavy emotion of shame. Do the exercises
in the books to help release shame.
guilty feelings when you refrain from unnecessary giving
by reminding yourself that your old family programming
is coming up.
your new self esteem as a person who takes care of your
own feelings, thoughts, actions and problems.
out of the drama and encourage the Victim to stand up
to the Perpetrator whenever possible.
an assertiveness course.
a life where you are responsible only for yourself!
Stop expecting someone else to rescue you. Think and problem
solve for yourself. Act boldly.
responsibility for your feelings, thoughts and actions
that contribute to your Victim role.
authentic with others and learn to state your feelings
and your needs firmly.
the body sensations and reactions that signal you are
about to collapse into helplessness.
to your constant Victim statements and break into them.
the terror and release traumatic memories of being abused
to handle confrontation and deal with other people's anger.
Learned Helplessness and Learned Optimism (Martin Seligman)
and apply the ideas from his research to your life.
any belief or thoughts that say you are unworthy and can't
take care of yourself.
what you expect and state your minimum standard of behavior
that you consider to be decent treatment from others.
limits with Perpetrators and rescuers and walk away if
they don't respect your boundaries.
blaming the Perpetrator and rescuer and focus on getting
out from under their influence.
with your anger at being scapegoated and punished by others
and your taking on the victim role.
a self nurturing, self care program to bolster your ability
to take care of your own needs.
an assertiveness training course. Read five books on assertiveness.
Take the course again.
yourself with new, positive friends and define yourself
as an independent person who can handle life's problems.
a life where you are responsible for yourself!
Hello. My Name is _____ and I'm in Recovery from the
honest. Recovery from family dysfunction is a time of facing
the truth about your childhood and delving into the dark
hole of lies, manipulations and devious behaviors that exist
inside of you. It is about examining how you treat others
and allow them to treat you. Drama Triangle work is Soul
work. It is a call from your highest self to address the
guilt, shame and sense of unworthiness within that percolates
up and refuses to go away. You can create the space to watch
and address your thoughts and behaviors as they present
get it that your playing out the familiar roles of Perpetrator,
Rescuer and Victim does not serve you. It does not serve
others. It is just something you have learned because it
was modeled for you. So you need not have guilt or feel
ashamed for what you have learned living in your family.
As learned patterns of habit, the attitudes and behaviors
that make up all the roles of the Drama Triangle can be
unlearned. To do nothing to change the roles guarantees
that thing will remain the same.
love in a family is a combination of checks and balances--calling
a person on his inappropriate behavior when necessary and
giving enthusiastic support for strivings for growth. Unconditional
love given to disrespectful or destructive behavior reinforces
the Perpetrator role as it does not provide any motivation
for change. Unconditional love given to rescuing, enabling
or victim behavior enhances continuing dysfunction. Real
love is honest and asks the people in the family to become
the best they can be without shaming or guilting. The ability
to share feelings honestly and respectfully is one sign
of healthy behavior in a family. Real love communicates
a belief of positive regard for the person. It expects and
gives respect to all family members.
undoing of the pain is an ongoing process of emotional and
spiritual maturity across the lifespan. It can be hastened
through study, observation and confrontation of negative
behaviors. You learn, stretch and grow each as you mindfully
watch your interactions with others. The techniques from
Energy Psychology Therapy and Imago Therapy are so easy
to learn to help you release negativity with amazing quickness.
is the ultimate key to true change and recovery. It can't
be forced, but by studying this humbling process of release,
it comes, sometimes out of the blue, to take you to a place
of higher consciousness. Forgiveness happens gradually for
some as there is a realization as Virginia Satir said, "We
are all victims of victims of victims." Forgiveness is threefold:
forgiveness of self, others and whatever you call God. Start
with yourself to accept that you are a person with strong
feelings that were born of trauma and injustice that call
out now for transformation. That's why the Course in Miracles
and the Emotional Freedom Technique have such depth. They
have a process to touch into forgiveness which you can apply
daily to bring about an overall acceptance and surrender
of the injustices and betrayals that happened in your life
to come to a place of calmness.
recovery from your family pain is a day-to-day process.
Life becomes brighter and more cheerful when you address
your personal pain. With practice and mindfulness, you can
break down those walls of delusion of dysfunctional behavior
you have built in a misguided attempt to stay safe. Make
honesty the only language you speak. In your recovery from
lies, deceits, and manipulation, decide to be as honest
as you can and treat those you love with respect. The process
of recovery is being mindful as you heed that call from
your Soul to wake up and become all that you can be.
Lynn. The Three Faces of Victim. http://lynneforrest.com/articles/fov.html
John & DeClaire, Joan. The Relationship Cure: A 5 Step
Guide for Building Better Connections with Family, Friends,
and Lovers. Crown Publishers, 2001.
John & Gottman, Julie. Why Marriages Succeed or Fail.
Simon & Shuster.
Harville. Getting the Love You Want. A Guide for Couples.
Henry Holt & Co., 1988.
Lynne. Goodbye Ouchies and Grouchies, Hello Happy Feelings.
EFT for Kids of All Ages. Talk, Trust & Feel Therapeutics,
Lynne. The Doormat Syndrome. Talk, Trust and Feel Therapeutics,
Lynne. Violence in Families. www.AngriesOut.com.
Lynne. The Right Man and Right Woman Theory. www.AngriesOut.com.
Martin, Learned Optimism. Pocket Books, 1990.
M & Oliver, B. (Eds.) Scream Louder. Through Hell and
Healing with an Incest Survivor and her Therapist. Columbia
University Press, 1988. http://www.abebooks.com.